Evaluating Psychosocial Problems in School-Age Children with Cleft Lip and Palate in Bandung, Indonesia Using CBCL/6-18

Hardisiswo Soedjana, Kristaninta Bangun, Sitha Christine

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Cleft lip with or without palate (CL ± P) may impact children’s eating, drinking, speaking, breathing, and hearing. We aim to evaluate psychosocial problems in Indonesian cleft center school-age patients identified after one or more surgical interventions. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of parent report of patients with unilateral CL ± P who had cleft surgery from 2011 to 2016 in the Bandung Cleft Center using the Bahasa Indonesia version of CBCL/6-18 questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were completed based on measure norms and score ranges. Results: There were 104 participants (56.7% male) with a median age of 8 years old and 73.0% had unilateral cleft of lip, gum, and palate. We found that speech and appearance problems were not perceived by parents for 34.6% of participants after undergoing surgery. The majority of parents reported normal range scores for the Social scale (93.3%) and the School scale (92.3%). In contrast, largely due to the restrictions in the covid-19 pandemic, 78.8% of the patients had below normal range scores for the Activities scale. Borderline or Clinical range scores were reported for 6.7% of children on the Problem Items section and 15.4% of parents endorsed one or more Critical Items about their children, which indicate significant behavioral concerns. Conclusion: In this study, we found 6.7% of the school-age children population with CL/P had psychosocial problems. The result of this study hopefully can shed some light in the long-term psychosocial conditions of the CL/P children post-operatively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1246-1252
Number of pages7
JournalCleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal
Issue number10
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021


  • mental development
  • nonsyndromic clefting
  • pediatrics
  • psychological assessment
  • psychosocial adjustment


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