Etiology COVID-19 mortality in Jakarta hospital in the first COVID-19 outbreak in Indonesia

Cicilia Windiyaningsih, Nurul Ulfah Hayatunnisa, Yenny Sulistowati, Tiwi Nurhastuti, Ign Erik Sapta Yanuar, Tri Budi W. Rahardjo

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The cause of death for Covid-19 patients is still controversial, some say that the age of children under five and the elderly has a high risk of death, some report a high risk of co-morbid mortality, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, asthma, pneumonia. Until now, there is no definite cure for the corona virus disease 19, while transmission from person to person through droplets makes it very easily transmitted. The morbidity rate is high, and also the mortality rate is around 7%. The aim of the study was to prove the etiology of the death of Covid-19 patients at Jakarta Hospital. Research Method: Applied research method with case control design. Samples of 41 patients died and control of 41 live Covid-19 patients. Sampling for patients who died from March to June 2020 a total of 41 people and 41 living Covid-19 patients were taken by random sampling, data collection was using the Eijkman Institute standard questionnaire. Frequency distribution analysis, chi square and multiple logistic regression. Result: The descriptive results of male gender are 56.1%, minimum age 0.5 years, maximum 92 years, and average 54 years. Young people 0.5-59 years, 63.4%, and 60-92 years 36.6%. Religion of Islam 68.3%, Non-Muslim 31.7%. Clinical symptoms of fever 22%, no fever 78%; shortness of breath 64.6%, pain 8.5%, cough 43.9%, lethargy 20.7%, headache 13.4%, diarrhea 12.2%, nausea 24.4%, pneumonia 74.4%, sore throat 2.4%, cold 1.2%, large stomach 1.2%, swollen legs 1.2%, oxygen saturation was up normal 38.46%. Co morbidity: Hypertension 35.4%, Diabetes Mellitus 23.2%, HD/CKD 12.2%. X-ray almost of them pneumonia (98.8%). PCR laboratory positive 34.1%, Rapid Anti Body reactive test 25.6. Whole blood test: Hb 4.9% up normal, up normal erythrocytes 42.7%., Hematocrit up normal 42.7%, up normal thrombocytes 28%, up normal leukocytes 54.9%, up normal lymphocytes 74.4%, up normal CRP 35.4%, GDS up normal 7.3%, up normal SGOT 45.1%, up normal SGPT 45.1%. Urea up normal 43.9%, creatinine up normal 56.5%, sodium up normal 59.8%, potassium up normal 58.5%, calcium up normal 63.4%, chloride up normal 53.7%. Medical Care: ICU 18.2%; ventilator 23.2%, IVFD 52.4%, Oxygen 32.9%, Diet 4.9%. TB drugs 6.1%, Azithromycin 3.7%. Asering 2.4%, OMZ 11%, Menden 11%, Cefrocidine 41.5%, Lasix 11%, Aspilet 3.7%, Milos 46.3%, Coagulant 3.7%, Dopamine 3.7%, Alloclamide 1.2%, Hazania 1.2%, Tamiflu 1.2%, Lefloxine 2.4%, Oseltamivir 26.8%. Hedonic 4.9%, Paracetamol 2.4%, Kalmix 18.3% Amlodipine 14.6% Carnefit 8.5% Renovit 2.4%, Vit C 25.6% Vit E 18.3%, Vit D 1.2%, Vit A 1.2%, Vit B Complex 1.2%, Zinc 7.3%, Vit K 7.3%, Curcuma 8.5%. Significant factors associated with death: pneumonia, cough, hypertension, O2 saturation. Hb, erythrocyte, Vit A, milos and IVFD. The end of the multiple logistic regression model only pneumonia and IVFD were significant. Detail final research for pneumonia p value 0.001, Odd Ratio 33.904, 95% CI 3,965-299,906; IVFD p value 0.001 with OR 6.654, 95% CI 2.151-20.580 were contributed 50.5% (R2) while the remaining factors are not examined. Conclusion pneumonia was influenced cause of death Covid-19.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)393-397
Number of pages5
JournalCurrent Pediatric Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Covid-19 death
  • IVFD
  • Pneumonia


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