Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, transfusions and risk of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection

Nurul Akbar, Bastaman Basuki, Mulyanto, David H. Garabrant, Ali Sulaiman, H. M.Sjaifoellah Noer

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36 Citations (Scopus)


This study identifies the risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and measures the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis C (anti-HCV) in the general population of Jakarta. A population-based sample of 985 people aged 15 and above was surveyed. Risk factors were identified through questionnaires and home visits. Serum was analysed for HBsAg, antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), anti-HCV, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The seroprevalence was: 4.0% (39/985) for HBsAg, 17.2% (170/985) for anti-HBs, and 3.9% (38/985) for and-HCV. The risk factors for hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection had little in common. Low socioeconomic status was a strong risk factor for HBsAg (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 18.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.35-139.50). In addition, the Chinese group has 2.97 higher risk of having HBV infection compared with the Malayan ethnic group (adjusted OR 2.97; 95% CI 1.22-7.83). There was moderate positive trend between family size and risk of HBsAg positivity (P = 0.130). Age over 50 (adjusted OR 14.72; 95% CI 4.35-49.89) and history of transfusion were significant risk factors for hepatitis C (adjusted OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.25- 7.33). Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections have different risk factors in Jakarta, a high risk in population for both diseases. Hepatitis B transmission is associated with low socioeconomic status, Chinese ethnic group and large family size, while hepatitis C is associated with an older age and a history of transfusions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)752-757
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Australia)
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1997


  • Ethnicity
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Socioeconomic risk
  • Transfusion


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