Estimation of sodium and potassium intakes assessed by two 24-hour urine collections in a city of Indonesia

Dianis Wulan Sari, Maiko Noguchi-Watanabe, Satoshi Sasaki, Junaiti Sahar, Noriko Yamamoto-Mitani

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5 Citations (Scopus)


Intakes of excess sodium [Na] and insufficient potassium [K] are two major contributors of heart diseases and stroke development. However, no precise study has existed on Na and K intakes among Indonesian adults. This study aimed to estimate the Na and K intakes using two consecutive 24-h urine collections. Participants were community-dwelling adults aged between 20 and 96 years, randomly selected from a pool of resident registration numbers. Of the 506 participants, 479 (240 men and 239 women) completed urine collections. The mean Na excretion was 102.8 and 100.6 mmol/d, while the mean K excretion was 25.0 and 23.4 mmol/d for men and women, respectively. Na and K excretions were higher in participants with a higher body mass index (BMI). A higher K excretion was associated only with younger age. More than 80% of the participants consumed more than 5 g/d of salt (the upper limit recommended by the Indonesian government). Whereas none of them consumed more than 3,510 mg/d of K (the lower limit). The high Na and low K intakes, especially high Na among participants with high BMI, should be considered when the intervention programs are future planned in this country.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1537-1548
Number of pages12
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 28 Nov 2021


  • 24-hour urine
  • Intake
  • Keywords:
  • Potassium
  • Sodium
  • Urine excretion


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