Esterification of oxidized ricinoleic acid with various alcohols to produce emulsifier and antimicrobial compounds

Atika Nabilah, Sri Handayani, Siswati Setiasih, Dyah Utami Cahyaning Rahayu, Sumi Hudiyono

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


This study's objective was to synthesize esters of ricinoleic oxidation product. The esterification products were expected may act as emulsifiers and to have antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes. Before esterified, ricinoleic acid was oxidized by KMnO4. The success of the oxidation reaction was proven by determining iodine number. Esterification was carried out using ZnCl2 as catalyst with various alcohols, namely methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and 1-butanol. Mole ratio fatty acid to alcohol used in esterification was 1: 2. The ester products were characterized using FTIR and the conversion percentage were determined by titrimetric method. Emulsifier test also performed to determine the ability of ester product as emulsifier. The success of oxidation was proven by decreasing iodine number from 44.05 mg/g to 17.15 mg/g and increasing absorption intensity -OH group in FTIR spectrum. FTIR spectrum of ester products showed the presence of absorption of C = O ester groups at 1750-1735 cm-1 and C-O-C at 1300-1000 cm-1 which proved the success of esterification. Emulsifier test showed that esterification products can act as emulsifiers and the emulsions formed were stable up to 24 hours for water-in-oil emulsion (w/o). The best ability as an emulsifier was shown by methyl esters. Antimicrobial assay showed that all esters can inhibit the growth both bacteria, P. acnes and S. epidermidis. The largest inhibition zone obtained for butyl ester against P. acnes by 17 mm and methyl ester against S. epidermidis by 17 mm.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication14th Joint Conference on Chemistry 2019
EditorsFitria Rahmawati, Teguh Endah Saraswati, Khoirina Dwi Nugrahaningtyas, Soerya Dewi Marliyana, Triana Kusumaningsih
PublisherAmerican Institute of Physics Inc.
ISBN (Electronic)9780735419964
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jun 2020
Event14th Joint Conference on Chemistry 2019, JCC 2019 - Surakarta, Indonesia
Duration: 10 Sept 201911 Sept 2019

Publication series

NameAIP Conference Proceedings
ISSN (Print)0094-243X
ISSN (Electronic)1551-7616


Conference14th Joint Conference on Chemistry 2019, JCC 2019


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