Purpose: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is consistently associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and highly prevalent in Indonesia. EBV-DNA load can be used for early diagnosis and may have prognostic value. In this study, EBV-DNA load was evaluated in minimal invasive nasopharyngeal (NP) brushings and whole blood for initial diagnosis and therapy assessment against the standard-of-care diagnosis by biopsy with EBV-RISH and standard EBV-IgA serology. Experimental Design: NP brushings and blood samples were collected from 289 consecutive ENT patients suspected of NPCs and 53 local healthy controls. EBV-DNA load was quantified by real-time PCR and serology by peptide-based EBV-IgA ELISA. Tissue biopsies were examined by routine histochemistry and by EBER RNA in situ hybridization. Results: Repeated NP brushing was well tolerated by patients and revealed high viral load in the 228 NPC cases at diagnosis than 61 non-NPC cancer cases and healthy controls (P < 0.001). The diagnostic value of EBV-DNA load in blood and EBV-IgA serology was inferior to the NP brush results. The level of EBV-DNA load in brushes of patients with NPC was not related to T, N, or M stage, whereas elevated EBV-DNA load in blood correlated with N and M stage. EBV-DNA levels in brushings and whole blood showed a significant reduction at 2 months after treatment (P = 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively), which was not reflected in EBV-IgA serology. Conclusions: NP brush sampling combined with EBV-DNA load analysis is a minimal invasive and well-tolerated diagnostic procedure, suited for initial diagnosis and follow-up monitoring of NPCs.