Epidemiology, Nasopharyngeal Carriage, Serotype Prevalence, and Antibiotic Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Indonesia

Cissy B. Kartasasmita, Sri Rezeki Hadinegoro, Nia Kurniati, Rina Triasih, Carolina Halim, Amgad Gamil

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


In Indonesia, pneumococcal disease represents a considerable public health concern; however, published data on the epidemiology, nasopharyngeal carriage, serotype prevalence, and antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in this region are limited. Therefore, this article reviews the available data from a variety of sources and also summarizes pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation and recommendations in Indonesia and subsequent impact on pneumococcal disease. Regional pneumococcal vaccination recommendations in Asia were also reviewed. Studies showed that pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence in Indonesia was approximately 43% to 55% in healthy children aged less than 5 years, which varied by age group, region, and year. Serotype analysis of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage isolates in Indonesia revealed that 38% to 60% of isolates would be covered by the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). The antimicrobial resistance of pneumococcal disease has increased over time; between 1997 and 2012, resistance to penicillin and sulfamethoxazole increased from 0% to 28% and 9% to 62%, respectively. Inclusion of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines into immunization programs is being implemented gradually. In 2017, Indonesia implemented a regional PCV13 immunization program in Lombok with a 2 + 1 vaccination schedule that was expanded in 2018–2019 to West Nusa Tenggara and Bangka Belitung Provinces; this expansion is predicted to substantially reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease in Indonesia. Overall, the limited data available regarding pneumococcal disease in Indonesia highlight the unmet need for comprehensive disease surveillance studies in this region that can help direct vaccination strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)723-736
Number of pages14
JournalInfectious Diseases and Therapy
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


  • Antibiotic resistance
  • Indonesia
  • Nasopharyngeal carriage
  • Pneumococcal disease
  • Pneumococcal vaccination


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