Epidemiology and characterisation of carbapenem-non-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a large intensive care unit in Jakarta, Indonesia

Yulia Rosa Saharman, Andreu Coello Pelegrin, Anis Karuniawati, Rudyanto Sedono, Dita Aditianingsih, Wil H.F. Goessens, Corné H.W. Klaassen, Alex van Belkum, Caroline Mirande, Henri A. Verbrugh, Juliëtte A. Severin

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17 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology and clinical impact of carbapenem-non-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CNPA) in intensive care units (ICUs) of the national referral hospital of Indonesia. Adult patients admitted to ICUs were prospectively included. Pseudomonas aeruginosa were from clinical cultures and systematic screening. Environmental niches and healthcare workers (HCWs) were also screened. Susceptibility was determined phenotypically and the presence of carbapenemase genes was determined by PCR. Multiple loci variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used for genotyping. Of the patients included in the study, 17/412 (4.1%) carried CNPA on admission and 34/395 (8.6%) became positive during their ICU stay. The acquisition rate was 18/1000 patient-days at risk. Of 16 environmental isolates, 12 (75.0%) were CNPA. HCWs screened negative. Acquisition of CNPA was associated with longer ICU stay (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.89, 99% confidence interval 1.12–3.13). Mortality was >40% among patients with CNPA versus <30% among those without CNPA (P = 0.019). Moreover, 83/119 (69.7%) CNPA carried either blaVIM (n = 36), blaIMP (n = 23) or blaGES-5 (n = 24). Four sequence types (STs) dominated (ST235, ST823, ST446 and ST357). Five major MLVA clusters were distinguished, two belonging to ST235 and the other three to ST823, ST446 and ST357. CNPA are introduced into these ICUs and some strains expand clonally among patients and the environment, creating endemic CNPA. VIM-, IMP- and GES-5 genes are prevalent. CNPA acquisition was associated with prolonged ICU stay and may affect ICU survival.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)655-660
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2019


  • Carbapenemase
  • Indonesia
  • Intensive care unit
  • Metallo-β-lactamase
  • Microbial drug resistance
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa


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