Epidemiological characteristics of non-melanoma skin cancer in Indonesia: Preliminary results

Setyawati Budiningsih, Joedo Prihartono, Yoshiyuki Ohno, Mochtar Hamzah, Masamitsu Ichihashi, Santoso Comain, Masato Ueda, Mpu Kanoko, Arman Mukhtar, Ahmad Tjarta, Evert Poetiray, Nobuo Munakata, Herman Cipto

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Non-melanoma in the most common type occurring in various countries. In case-control study performed at Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Jakarta, with 139 skin cancer cases, the distribution in females and males did not show significant difference. The majority (75 %) of cases had low educational background. Educational level showed significant correlation to exposure to smoking, using long sleeve and high consumption of fat, protein and vegetables. Working outdoor associated with lower level of education and lower consumption of vegetables and fruits, while working indoor associated with higher level of education and higher consumption of vegetables and fruits. In particular for junior and high school educated individuals, the test for trend showed high significance. The higher the educational level the lower the risk of the above mentioned factors. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in the most frequent type, followed by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Epidemiologically, BCC was found higher among males, in lower educational level and in individuals with occupation and habit with high exposure to ultraviolet. Test for trend did not show significant difference in comparing BCC to SCC, except for the trend for BCC according to educational levels. The results obtained in this epidemiological study confirmed the results reported by others. In order to clarify the effects of several factors, further analysis using larger data is in progress.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)106-111
Number of pages6
JournalMedical Journal of Indonesia
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2000


  • Epidemiology
  • Non-melanoma
  • Skin cancer


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