Epidemiological analysis of risk factors for breast cancer in Indonesian females

Setyawati Budiningsih, Yoshiyuki Ohno, Joedo Prihartono, Muchlis Ramli, Kenji Wakai, Santoso Cornain, Idral Darwis, Sadao Suzuki, Didid Tjindarbumi, Susumu Watanabe, Gunawan Tjahjadi, Goi Sakamoto, Esti Soetrisn, Endang Sri Roostini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


To identify risk factors in breast cancer development a 3-year epidemiological study was carried out in the joint research project between Indonesia and Japan. Case-control method has been chosen and patients visiting Dr. Cipto Mangunnkusumo National General Hospital, Jakarta were used. Three hundred cases, newly diagnosed primary breast cancer patients, confirmed with histopathological examination were matched by age (+/- 3 years) and socio-economic status with 600 controls. Data collected were demographics, reproductives, breast trauma, radiation exposure, genetical traits,dietary pattern and other lifestyles. The epidemiological data were analyzed by univariate method. The results showed that several factors increased breast cancer risk, namely breast trauma, underweight, naturally occuring menopause, induced menopause, infrequent (1-2 times) pregnancy, short period (less than 4 months) breast feeding, close genetic trait with breast cancer patient and fatty food consumption. Factors reducing the risk of breast cancer were separated marital status, widowed, overweight and irregular menstrual cycle It was concluded that the most prominent risk factors were 1) induced menopause and 2) short period (less than 4 months) breast feeding (Relative Risk of 5.96 and 5.44 respectively). The risk of breast cancer was twice to thrice in patients with underweight, among close genetic traits and those consuming fatty food (Relative Risk of 2.2, 2.85 and 2.63 respectively). Since fatty food consumption was found as one of the significant risk factors, the study has been extended with further nutritional analysis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)163-168
Number of pages6
JournalMedical Journal of Indonesia
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 1995


  • Breast cancer
  • Case-control study
  • Risk factors


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