Environmental performance of cocoa production from monoculture and agroforestry systems in Indonesia

Budi Utomo, Adi A. Prawoto, Sébastien Bonnet, Athikom Bangviwat, Shabbir H. Gheewala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

62 Citations (Scopus)


Indonesia is seeking to expand its cocoa production to meet the increased international demand. However, this effort faces economies of scale and ecological challenges. This research aims at evaluating environmental performance of cocoa production from cocoa monoculture and cocoa-agroforestry by life cycle assessment based on ISO 14040 and 14044, with adaptation for local impact indicators. This study defined cocoa-agroforestry as raw and sequential of cocoa–coconut and cocoa–rubber agroforestry, combined with shading trees Leucaena sp. and Gliricidia sepium. The analysis considered cocoa production at farm level, from cradle to on-farm gate boundary for 1 metric tonne of cocoa pod. The results showed that cocoa–coconut agroforestry had the least contribution to global impact categories of global warming, acidification and eutrophication, accounting for 3.67E+01 kgCO2-eq, 4.31E-02 kgSO2-eq, and 2.25E-05 kgPO4-eq respectively. Cocoa–coconut agroforestry also had the highest organic carbon and soil organic matter, conditions supporting the growth and activity of beneficial soil microbeds (Pseudomonas sp. and Trichoderma sp.). In addition, total land equivalent ratio of cocoa–coconut agroforestry had the highest value at 1.36, indicating a highest yield advantage was gained. Therefore, cocoa–coconut agroforestry could be a wise option to promote environmental sustainability of cocoa cultivation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)583-591
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Issue numberPart B
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2016


  • Cocoa agroforestry
  • Environmental performance
  • Indonesia
  • Life cycle assessment


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