Environmental Impact Analysis to Achieve Sustainability for Artisan Chocolate Products Supply Chain

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Abstract

Small-scale artisan chocolate producers target environmentally conscious consumers and must work with their supply chain partners to measure and improve their environmental impacts. This research evaluates the environmental impact along the supply chain of artisan dark chocolate products in Indonesia and creates an action plan to reduce environmental impact. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was used. The analysis considers cocoa production from the farm level to the processing of cocoa beans into bars in three stages for 1 kg of dark chocolate: the farm maintenance and harvesting stage; post-harvesting stage; and processing stage. At the farm maintenance and harvesting stage, the significant contributions are 72.5% of total abiotic depletion (AD), 47.2% of total global warming (GW), 80.2% of total eutrophication (EU). The significant contributions at the post-harvesting are 31.2% of total AD, 51.8% of total GW, 83% of total EU, 26.4% of total ozone layer depletion (ODP), 20.1% of total cumulative energy demand (CED) and non-renewable fossil (NRF), and 36.9% of total CED renewable biomass (RB). And at the processing stage, the significant contributions are 20.5% of total AD, 15% of total GW, 4% of total ODP, 13.1% of total acidification (AC), 12% of total EU, 10% of total fossil resource scarcity (FRS), and 1.6% of total CED NRF. Changes to the farm maintenance and harvesting stages contributed the most to environmental impact reduction by improving waste utilization and the treatment and selection of environmentally friendly materials.

Original languageEnglish
Article number13527
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Volume15
Issue number18
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023

Keywords

  • artisan chocolate
  • cocoa
  • environmental impact
  • life cycle assessment (LCA)
  • supply chain

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