Environmental and occupational lung diseases in Indonesia.

Hadiarto Mangunnegoro, Dianiati Kusumo Sutoyo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Indonesia as a developing country has air pollution which is mainly caused by motor vehicle emissions and industrial smoke. The most important indoor air pollution is cigarette smoke. The prevalence of smoking among Indonesian men is 45.7%. Of the population, 10.8% are ex-smokers and 43.5% are non-smokers. Among the female population, only 1.8% smoke. There are some important factors that influence the air pollution in Indonesia; this paper identifies the real problems and their impact. The paper reviews various studies that have been carried out in Indonesia which were related to ambient air quality, industrial air pollutants levels (SO2, NOx, Ox, Pb, CO, HC) in large cities in Indonesia have exceeded the acceptable level, especially in industrial trade and heavy traffic areas. The more cigarettes inhaled and the deeper the inhalation, especially the kretek cigarettes, the risk of ling function abnormality becomes greater. Smoking high dose kretek cigarettes, that is > or = 116 cigarettes/day x years, the risk of abnormal lung function is 13-fold that of a non-smoker; if added with the deep inhalation of smoke, the risk becomes 20-fold. Smoking increases the risk of occupational lung disease. The level of dust in some industrial areas exceeded the standard level and correlated with respiratory problems. The existence of industry caused by air pollution in the environment increased the incidence of obstructive airway diseases. We conclude that the main cause of air pollution in Indonesia is motor vehicle emissions, followed by industrial smoke. Cigarette smoke is also related to abnormal lung function.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85-93
Number of pages9
JournalRespirology (Carlton, Vic.)
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1996


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