Enhancing physical exercise adherence by promoting self-efficacy in elderly with osteoarthritis knee

Rita Damayanti, Citra Puspa Juwita, Besral Besral, Djohan Aras, James Manik, Bernadetha Nadeak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study introduces a physical exercise education program based on self-efficacy, employing direct and indirect educational approaches to alleviate symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA). The main objectives are to compare physical exercise adherence between group and individual settings and evaluate self-efficacy's influence on exercise adherence among elderly individuals with OA knee. Methods: A pre-and post-educational quasi-experimental design was utilized, involving four groups. Group education sessions, facilitated by social support, comprised eight meetings, while individual education was provided via video. The study included 20 districts in a single administrative area and lasted for seven months. Respondents were selected based on a doctor's diagnosis supported by knee X-ray results meeting specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data analysis employed univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis, incorporating the difference in differences (DID) test to ascertain the impact of physical exercise education on OA physical exercise adherence. The instruments utilized included the McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and self-reported physical activity logs. Results: The reduction in OA symptoms was observed directly in the self-efficacy and method-based groups, while individuals not grounded in self-efficacy showed a slight increase in symptoms (1%). The intervention's effect in the self-efficacy-based group was higher by 0.6 days compared to the non-self-efficacy-based group (p-value < 0.001; R = 0.32). Behavioral continuity of physical activity demonstrated greater sustainability in both group and individual settings based on self-efficacy (5.8 days). Conclusion: Improving adherence to physical exercise among elderly individuals with knee osteoarthritis can alleviate symptoms, a goal achievable through the cultivation of self-efficacy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number115
Pages (from-to)1009-1015
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Physical Education and Sport
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2024


  • Adherence
  • Elderly
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Physical exercise
  • Self-efficacy
  • Social support


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