Enhancing diagnostic accuracy of aMCI in the elderly: Combination of olfactory test, pupillary response test, BDNF plasma level, and APOE genotype

Yuda Turana, Teguh Asaat S. Ranakusuma, Jan Sudir Purba, Nurmiati Amir, Siti Airiza Ahmad, Moh Hasan Machfoed, Yvonne Suzy Handayani, Asmarinah, Sarwono Waspadji

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background. Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) often progresses to Alzheimer's disease. There are clinical markers and biomarkers to identify the degenerative process in the brain. Objectives. To obtain the diagnostic values of olfactory test, pupillary response to tropicamide 0.01%, BDNF plasma level, and APOE ε4 in diagnosing aMCI. Methods. Cross-sectional, comparative analysis. Results. There were 109 subjects enrolled (aMCI: 51, normal cognition: 58) with age 64 ± 5.54 years. For diagnosing aMCI, cut-off point for the olfactory score was <7 out of 10 and >22% for pupil dilatation response. Low BDNF plasma level was related significantly with olfactory deficits and aMCI (P<0.05). Four of five subjects with homozygote e4 presented with multiple-domain aMCI. This group displayed the lowest means of olfactory score and the highest means of pupillary hypersensitivity response (P<0.0001). Combination of olfactory deficit and pupillary hypersensitivity response in detection of aMCI was beneficial with Sp 91% and PPV 87%. In conjunction with clinical markers, BDNF plasma level and presence of APOE e4+ improved Sp and PPV. Conclusions. Combination of olfactory test and pupillary response test was useful as diagnostic tool in aMCI. In conjunction with clinical markers, low level of BDNF plasma and presence of APOE e4 improved the diagnostic value.

Original languageEnglish
Article number912586
JournalInternational Journal of Alzheimer's Disease
Volume2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 Mar 2014

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