Enhancing Delta e Effect at High Temperatures of Galfenol/Ti/Single-Crystal Diamond Resonators for Magnetic Sensing

Zilong Zhang, Haihua Wu, Liwen Sang, Yukiko Takahashi, Jian Huang, Linjun Wang, Masaya Toda, Indianto Mohammad Akita, Yasuo Koide, Satoshi Koizumi, Meiyong Liao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


A conventional wisdom is that the sensing properties of magnetic sensors at high temperatures will be degraded due to the materials' deterioration. Here, the concept of high-temperature enhancing magnetic sensing is proposed based on the hybrid structure of SCD MEMS resonator functionalized with a high thermal-stable ferromagnetic galfenol (FeGa) film. The delta E effect of the magnetostrictive FeGa thin film on Ti/SCD cantilevers is investigated by varying the operating temperature from 300 to 773 K upon external magnetic fields. The multilayer structure magnetic sensor presents a high sensitivity of 71.1 Hz/mT and a low noise level of 10 nT/√Hz at 773 K for frequencies higher than 7.5 kHz. The high-temperature magnetic sensing performance exceeds those of the reported magnetic sensors. Furthermore, an anomalous behavior is observed on the delta E effect, which exhibits a positive temperature dependence with the law of Tn. Based on the resonance frequency shift of the FeGa/Ti/SCD cantilever, the strain coupling in the multilayers of the FeGa/Ti/SCD structure under a magnetic field is strengthened with increasing temperature. The delta E effect shows a strong relationship with the azimuthal angle, θ, as a sine function at 300 and 773 K. This work provides a strategy to develop magnetic sensors for high-temperature applications with performance superior to that of the present ones.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23155-23164
Number of pages10
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 20 May 2020


  • galfenol film
  • high-temperature magnetic sensor
  • interface coupling
  • MEMS
  • single-crystal diamond


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