As-synthesized colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are usually covered by an organic capping ligand. These ligands provide colloidal stability by preventing QDs agglomeration. However, their inherent electrical insulation properties deliver a problem for hybrid solar cell application, disrupting charge transfer, and electron transport in conjugated polymer/QDs photoactive blends. Therefore, a surface modification of QDs is crucial before QDs are integrated into solar cell fabrication. In this work, enhancement of power conversion efficiency (PCE) in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) hybrid solar cells based on hexadecylamine- (HDA-) capped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) has been achieved via a postsynthetic hexanoic acid washing treatment. The investigation of the surface modification was performed to find the optimum of washing time and their effect on solar cell devices performance. Variation of washing time between 16 and 30 min has been conducted, and an optimum washing time was found at 22 min, resulting in a high PCE of 2.81%. The efficiency enhancement indicates improved electron transport, contributing in an increased short-circuit current density of solar cell devices.