Energy and protein intakes are associated with stunting among preschool children in Central Jakarta, Indonesia: a case-control study

Sandra Fikawati, Ahmad Syafiq, Rienzy Kholifatur Ririyanti, Syilga Cahya Gemily

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: Stunting is a major nutritional problem in Indonesia. The prevalence of stunting in DKI Jakarta province was relatively high at 27.5% in 2013 and 17.7% in 2018. This study aims to describe nutrient intakes of children aged 25-30 months and to determine the proportional differences in nutrient intakes between stunting and normal children in Central Jakarta, Indonesia. Methods: A case-control study with a total sample of 121 children aged 25-30 months was conducted in Gambir and Sawah Besar sub-districts, Central Jakarta, where the prevalence of stunting was high. All children were exclusively breastfed for at least four months and had similar socio-economic levels. Data collected included height measurement, questionnairebased interview, and 24-hour food recall. T-test and chi-square test were used to investigate the differences between two groups and logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis. Results: Factors associated with stunting were energy intake (AOR=6.0; 95% CI=1.0-35.0) and protein intake (AOR=4.0; 95% CI=1.1-15.5) after controlling for fat, carbohydrate, vitamin C, iron, and zinc intakes. The percentage of children with energy intake below the recommendation was much higher in stunted children (86.1%) compared to normal children (43.5%). Similarly, the percentage of children with protein intake below the recommendation was very much higher among stunted children (30.6%) compared to 8.2% in normal children. Conclusion: Children who lacked energy and protein intakes were at a higher risk of stunting than children who had sufficient intakes. Macronutrient intakes are important and should be consumed in sufficient quantities every day to prevent stunting.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)81-91
Number of pages11
JournalMalaysian Journal of Nutrition
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • energy intake
  • nutrient intake
  • preschool children
  • protein intake
  • Stunting


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