Endometrial breakdown in women using Norplant is associated with migratory cells expressing matrix metalloproteinase-9 (gelatinase B)

A. J. Vincent, N. Malakooti, J. Zhang, P. A.W. Rogers, Biran Affandi, L. A. Salamonsen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

79 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Norplant, subdermally implanted slow-release levonorgestrel, is an effective and widely used contraceptive agent but has a high rate of discontinuation due to unacceptable abnormal uterine bleeding. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are expressed in normal cycling endometrium and are postulated to be responsible for the tissue breakdown at menstruation. We have compared the immunolocalization of MMP-9 and migratory cells in endometrium from Indonesian women using Norplant with normal controls. Positive MMP-9 immunostaining was observed intracellularly within stromal and intravascular leukocytes and extracellularly in areas of tissue lysis adjacent to these migratory cells. The MMP-9 positive cells were identified as neutrophils, eosinophils, CD3+ T-cells and macrophages. Quantitative assessment revealed that the number of MMP-9 positive cells, neutrophils and eosinophils were significantly increased in those endometrial biopsies from Norplant users displaying a shedding morphology and in normal controls at menstruation. There was no correlation between the number of MMP-9 positive cells and the number of bleeding days reported. Endometrial immunostaining for tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases was similar in Norplant users and normal controls. These results suggest that MMP-9, an enzyme capable of degrading basement membrane components, may be involved in endometrial breakdown in women using Norplant.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)807-815
Number of pages9
JournalHuman Reproduction
Volume14
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1999

Keywords

  • Endometrial bleeding
  • Immunochemistry
  • Leukocyte
  • Matrix metalloproteinase-9
  • Norplant

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