Empathy quotient and systemizing quotient in elementary school children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A comparative study

Agnes Lasmono, Raden Irawati Ismail, Fransiska Kaligis, Kusuma Minayati, Tjhin Wiguna

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study compares the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ) scores of elementary school children with and without ADHD. The study also examined their brain types and, because sex plays a big role in empathy and systemizing ability, compared the results of the boys and girls. This cross-sectional study involved 122 participants, including 61 parents of children with ADHD and 61 parents of children without ADHD. The EQ, SQ and brain types were obtained using the Empathy and Systemizing Quotient in children (EQ-/SQ-C), validated in the Indonesian language. Data was analyzed using the SPSS program version 20 for Windows, with a p-value < 0.05 for statistical significance. There was a significant difference in EQ between children with and without ADHD, the score being lower in children with ADHD. There was also a significant difference in SQ among girls with and without ADHD, but not in boys. The brain types in both groups were not significantly different. The results indicate that children with ADHD have a lower ability to empathize compared to children without ADHD. Systemizing abilities were significantly lower in girls with ADHD than in girls without. Therefore, an intervention program focusing on improving empathy and systemizing ability needs to be developed in the community.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9231
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume18
Issue number17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2021

Keywords

  • ADHD
  • Children
  • Empathy quotient
  • EQ
  • Indonesia
  • SQ
  • Systemizing quotient

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