Efficacy and safety of therapies for advanced prostate cancer in Asia: Evidence from a systematic literature review

Marniza Saad, Rainy Umbas, Edmund Chiong, Ravindran Kanesvaran

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Objectives: Several therapies are available for the treatment of advanced/metastatic prostate cancer (PC). However, the systematic assessment of evidence pertaining to the use of these therapies in Asian patients is lacking. Methods: A systematic literature review (SLR) was conducted using PubMed/Medline search in May 2021 to identify the randomized/nonrandomized controlled trials (RCTs/non-RCTs) and real-world observational studies (prospective/retrospective). Only studies published as full manuscripts in English were included if reporting the efficacy, effectiveness, and/or safety of treatments in Asian patients with advanced/metastatic PC. Results: Of the 1,898 retrieved publications, 24 studies were included. These studies had patients with nonmetastatic castration-resistant PC (n = 2), metastatic castration-sensitive PC (n = 4), and metastatic castration-resistant PC (n = 18). Study designs included RCTs (n = 7), non-RCTs (n = 2), and real-world studies (n = 15). Treatments used in included studies were abiraterone acetate plus prednisone (AAP; n = 6), enzalutamide, lutetium-177 prostate-specific membrane antigen (177Lu-PSMA; n = 4 each), docetaxel (n = 3), apalutamide, radium-223 (n = 2 each), darolutamide, cabazitaxel, and pembrolizumab (n = 1 each). The evidence from RCTs (i.e., ARAMIS, SPARTAN, ARCHES, TITAN, LATITUDE, PREVAIL) demonstrated the clinical benefits of apalutamide, darolutamide, enzalutamide, and AAP in terms of overall, disease-free, and metastasis-free survival in Asian patients. These treatments were reported to be well tolerated, with no new safety signals identified in Asian population. The efficacy and safety profiles in Asian patients were consistent with the overall trial population. Data from real-world studies supported the effectiveness and tolerability of AAP, enzalutamide, radium-223, docetaxel, cabazitaxel, 177Lu-PSMA, and pembrolizumab in patients with advanced/metastatic PC. Conclusions: This SLR of the Asian data on therapies for advanced PC from the pivotal and real-world studies confirms similar efficacy and safety outcomes, consistent with the results from the pivotal clinical trials. These findings will help clinicians make better treatment decisions in clinical practice for patients with advanced/metastatic PC.

Original languageEnglish
JournalTherapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Asia
  • efficacy
  • outcomes
  • prostate cancer
  • randomized controlled trial
  • real-world study
  • safety
  • treatments


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