Effects of external feedback on disengagement in a human-centric environment

Rapee Kanchana, Kongkiti Phusavat, Zbigniew Pastuszak, Achmad Nizar Hidayanto, Jukka Majava

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Overcoming the disengagement feeling in a human- centric environment such as a workplace or a school is essential. In fact, the disengagement in a workplace or at school is one of the major challenges today. Lack of meaningful engagement contributes to this feeling. OBJECTIVE: It is to assess the impacts of external feedback on learning and development. External feedback reflects engagement with the disengaged learners. METHODS: Two schools where the students are generally viewed as disengaged have been involved since 2016. Foreign business communities have worked closely with teachers, and disengaged learners as an external feedback provider. The feedback design is based on the Double-loop Learning. The survey is used to assess the impacts of external feedback. RESULTS: External feedback significantly contributes to more positive feeling on safety, belonginess, and happiness which is essential for learning and development. Based on the findings, external feedback helps overcome the feeling of disengagement in a human-centric environment. CONCLUSIONS: The proper use of external feedback in a human-centric environment shows tangible benefits, especially when dealing with the disengaged learners. External feedback can help re-engage the disengaged learners which can lead to better learning and development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)685-697
Number of pages13
JournalHuman Systems Management
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2 Apr 2022


  • disengaged learners
  • external feedback
  • Human-centric environment
  • learning and development
  • safe learning environment


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