Chromium is widely used in medical and dental implants, appliances and tools, where sufficient content s of this chemical element can provide a protective corrosion-resistant oxide on the alloy surface. At low concentrations chromium is used for medical purposes, and it is also involved in natural human lipid and protein metabolism. However, at sufficiently high concentrations particularly hexavalent chromium is toxic and carcinogenic. The healthy risks can be expected regardless whether the chromium originates from external sources such as polluted drinking water or internally from corroding dental appliances. As the latter source is likely to provide chromium exposure only at low to modest concentrations, no acute effects are generally expected. The current paper aimed to briefly review the toxicology aspects of chromium in general and in oral exposure from applications, used in dentistry. It was concluded that most likely oral effects are chronic, including carcinogenic impact, but more studies are directed to investigation on the chronic effects of chromium release from dental appliances.