Background: Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a complex endoscopic procedure that requires moderate to deep sedation. Propofol is the sedative agent of choice for sedation in ERCP due to its fast distribution and fast elimination time without a cumulative effect after infusion, resulting in shorter recovery time. Benzydamine hydrochloride is a topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has analgesic, local anesthetic, and anti-inflammatory effects that have been known to be effective in reducing postoperative sore throat. Combination of propofol and topical analgesic may provide adequate sedation and reduce propofol consumption. This study aimed to determine the effectivity of benzydamine hydrochloride gargling in reducing propofol consumption in the ERCP procedure. Methods: This study was a single-blind randomized controlled trial for patients undergoing ERCP procedures at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital from August to September 2018. A total of 72 subjects were recruited consecutively and randomly assigned into two groups. The first group received 15 mL of 0.15% benzydamine hydrochloride mouthwash prior to the procedure, whereas the second group received 15 mL of water mouthwash. Additional propofol was administered when patient moved or Ramsay Sedation Scale rose above 4. Cumulative propofol consumption per kg body weight per minute and incidence of postoperative sore throat were recorded in each group. Incidence of desaturation, postoperative nausea vomitting, and dysphagia were also recorded. Data analysis was performed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: Cumulative propofol consumption per minute per kg body weight in the benzydamine hydrochloride group was 152.7 (91.9-238.8) mcg/kg/minute, while in the control group was 200.05 (114.4-380.2) mcg/kg/ minute (p = < 0.001). The incidence of sore throat on the 0th, 2nd, and 4th hour for the benzydamine hydrochloride group was 11.4, 11.4, and 5.7%, while in the control group was 50, 52.8, and 36.1% (p = < 0.001, < 0.001, 0.003). Desaturation was found in control group whereas none in benzydamine hydrochloride group. Complaints of nausea and vomiting were comparable in both groups. Conclusion: Benzydamine hydrochloride gargling was effective in reducing cumulative propofol consumption in the ERCP procedure. Trial registration: Study was registered retrospectively in ClinicalTrials.gov with NCT04167592 on November 8th 2019.
- Benzydamine hydrochloride
- Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
- Sore throat