Effectiveness of granulocyte colony stimulating factor to enhance healing on delayed union fracture model Sprague-Dawley rat

Aryadi Kurniawan, Evelina Kodrat, Yogi Ismail Gani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: Delayed union is a problem that can occur after fracture healing. Many studies were conducted based on the diamond concept approach to solve the problem of delayed union. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is one of the various substances known to have a positive role in healing skeletal tissue or adjuvant regeneration. This study was conducted to see the effect of G-CSF in affecting delayed union fracture healing. Materials and method: The experimental study was conducted by randomized posttest only control group design on 24 experimental animals Sprague-Dawley white rats that had experienced delayed union models. The study compared the treatment group injected with subcutaneous G-CSF with a control group and was divided into four groups (n = 6). Harvest and follow-up histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry were performed in the second week and in the fourth week the histomorphometry analysis consisted of the percentage of immature bone area, cartilage, and fibrous area. The semiquantitative evaluation of immunohistochemistry with the expression of BMP-2 through the immunoreactive score (IRS). Result: In the evaluation of histomorphometry and immunohistochemical parameters, there were significantly more woven bone area (p = 0,015), less fibrosis area (p = 0,002) and higher BMP 2 expression (p = 0,004) in treatment group week four compared to control. . Conclusion: G-CSF was shown to increase the speed of healing in Sprague-Dawley rats on delayed union models evaluated from histomorphometry and immunohistochemical aspects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)54-60
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of Medicine and Surgery
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021


  • BMP-2
  • Delayed union
  • Fracture healing
  • Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor
  • Histomorphometry
  • Immunohistochemistry


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