Effect of particulate matter 2.5 exposure to urinary malondialdehyde levels of public transport drivers in Jakarta

Damai Arum Pratiwi, Budi Haryanto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


People who work long hours on the road are intensively exposed to high levels of fine particulate matters (PM2.5) which may lead to oxidative stress mechanisms in the human body that cause deleterious health problems. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is the major metabolite produced during lipid peroxidation metabolism that serves as a reliable biomarker for oxidative stress in cells. To identify the association between PM2.5 exposure and other characteristics with urinary MDA levels among public transport drivers in Jakarta. A cross-sectional design was implemented by involving 130 public transport drivers of nine trajectories from Kampung Melayu Terminal, Jakarta. The continuous PM2.5 data were collected in personal measurement during one round trip of driving. Weight and height measurements were obtained to calculate body mass index (BMI) and structured questionnaires were completed to identify other characteristics. MDA levels were examined from the driver's urine right after driving and evaluated using TBARS analysis. The average of PM2.5 exposure was 91.56 ± 20.05 μg/m3 and MDA levels were 2.23 ± 1.57 nmoL/mL. Drivers with overweight and obese BMI had significantly higher MDA levels (2.66 ± 1.65 nmoL/mL) compared to those with normal and underweight BMI status (1.97 ± 1.47 nmoL/mL). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated low PM2.5 exposure, normal and underweight BMI status, and a long period of working as drivers were associated with MDA levels (p<0.05). Contrary to the prior study, PM2.5 exposure was negatively associated with MDA levels due to most drivers' BMI status being normal and underweight. Our study suggests that the drivers who were obese and overweight should lose weight to lower the risk of increased MDA levels. We also suggest the drivers to consider maintaining their vehicle's ventilation system or using personal protection equipment (PPE) to avoid high PM2.5 exposure while driving.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)295-300
Number of pages6
JournalReviews on Environmental Health
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2020


  • body mass index
  • PMexposure
  • public transport drivers
  • urine malondialdehyde


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