In this study, the effect of heat treatment on the structural, magnetic and electrical properties of La2 FeMnO6 prepared via the sol–gel and sintering method were investigated. The heat-treatment conditions, i.e., the calcination temperature (1023 K and 1173 K), sintering temperature and time (1273 K for 1 and 3 h) were carried out. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed orthorhombic pnma (62) symmetry without any impurity phase for all samples. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of Fe2+ –Fe3+ –Fe4+ and Mn3+ –Mn4+ mixed states, and lanthanum and oxygen vacancies resulting in various magnetic exchange interactions. Furthermore, the magnetisation hysteresis showed enhanced hysteresis loops accompanied by an increase in magnetisation parameters with calcination temperature. The Raman phonon parameters induced a redshift in the phonon modes, alongside an increase in the intensity and compression of the linewidth, reflecting a decrease in lattice distortion, which was confirmed by XRD. The temperature-dependent conductivity showed that the conduction mechanism is dominated by p-type polaron hopping, and the lowest activation energy was approximately 0.237 ± 0.003 eV for the minimum heat-treatment conditions. These results show that varying heat-treatment conditions can significantly affect the structural, magnetic and electrical properties of the La2 FeMnO6 system.
- Crystallite size
- La FeMnO