Effect of daily and weekly micronutrient supplementation on micronutrient deficiencies and growth in young Vietnamese children

Bui Dai Thu, Werner Schultink, Drupadi Harnopidjati, Rainer Gross, Nelly Dhevita Leswara, Ha Hui Khoi

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93 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Micronutrient deficiencies remain common in preschool children in developing countries. Interventions focus on single micronutrients and often lack effectiveness. Weekly instead of daily supplementation may improve effectiveness. Objective: The efficacy of weekly and daily supplementation in reducing anemia prevalence and in improving the zinc, vitamin A, and growth status of 6-24-mo-old Vietnamese children was investigated. Design: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the daily group (n = 55) received 8 mg elemental Fe (as iron sulfate), 5 mg elemental Zn (as zinc sulfate), 333 μg retinol, and 20 mg vitamin C 5 d/wk for 3 mo. The weekly group (n = 54) received 20 mg Fe, 17 mg Zn, 1700 μg retinol, and 20 mg vitamin C once a week. A third group (n = 54) received a placebo only. Venous blood samples were collected at the start and end of the supplementation period and anthropometric measurements were taken at the start and 3 mo after the end of supplementation. Results: At baseline, 45.6% of subjects had hemoglobin concentrations < 110 g/L, 36.3% had zinc concentrations < 10.71 μmol/L, and 45.6% had retinol concentrations < 0.70 μmol/L. Hemoglobin, retinol, and zinc concentrations of both the weekly and daily groups increased similarly compared with the placebo group (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in growth between the supplemented groups and the placebo group. However, the height-for-age of subjects stunted at baseline increased with z scores of 0.48 (P < 0.001) and 0.37 (P < 0.001) for the daily and weekly groups, respectively. Conclusions: Weekly and daily supplementation improved hemoglobin, zinc, and retinol concentrations similarly. Neither intervention affected growth of the overall population, but growth of children stunted at baseline was improved through both types of supplementation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)80-86
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume69
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1999

Keywords

  • Anemia
  • Growth
  • Hemoglobin
  • Infants
  • Iron
  • Micronutrient deficiency
  • Supplementation
  • Vietnam
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin C
  • Zinc

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