Effect of Adding Biomass from Palm Kernel Shell on Phase Transformation and Microstructure during Carbothermic Reduction of Ilmenite

Cynta Immanuela Lamandasa, Agung Setiawan, Sri Harjanto, M. Akbar Rhamdhani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

This study investigated the effects of adding pulverized biomass from palm kernel shells as a reductant on phase transformation and microstructure during the carbothermic reduction of ilmenite. The ilmenite concentrate was reduced at a temperature range of 1000–1200°C for up to 3 h in an inert atmosphere. The amount of reducing agents used in this study varied between 6 and 10 wt.%. The reduced samples were studied using an X-ray diffractometer and optical microscope to analyze their phase transformations and microstructures. The results revealed that near-complete dissociation of ilmenite was attained when biomass was added up to 8 wt.%. Complete dissociation of ilmenite occurred, and Ti3O5 formed when ilmenite was reduced with 9 wt.% biomass at 1200°C for 2 h. At this point, the microstructural study showed that a significant amount of metallic iron, with an average metallic iron size of 241.5 μm2, had formed

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1139-1148
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Technology
Volume12
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Keywords

  • Biomass
  • Carbothermic reduction
  • Ilmenite
  • Palm kernel shell

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