Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is carried lifelong by ∼80 % of adults worldwide, generating distinct disease syndromes in transplant recipients, people with HIV (PWH) and neonates. Amino acids 15–23 encoded by the HCMV gene UL40 match positions 3–11 of HLA-A and HLA-C, and constitute a “signal peptide” able to stabilise cell surface HLA-E as a restriction element and a ligand of NKG2A and NKG2C. We present next generation sequencing of UL40 amplified from 15 Australian renal transplant recipients (RTR), six healthy adults and four neonates, and 21 Indonesian PWH. We found no groupwise associations between the presence of multiple sequences and HCMV burden (highest in PWH) or HCMV-associated symptoms in neonates. Homology between UL40 and corresponding HLA-C and HLA-A peptides in 11 RTR revealed perfect matches with HLA-C in three individuals, all carrying HCMV encoding only VMAPRTLIL – a peptide previously associated with viremia. However indices of the burden of HCMV did not segregate in our cohort.