A genomic and bioactivity informed analysis of the metabolome of the extremophile Amycolatopsis sp. DEM30355 has allowed for the discovery and isolation of the polyketide antibiotic tatiomicin. Identification of the biosynthetic gene cluster was confirmed by heterologous expression in Streptomyces coelicolor M1152. Structural elucidation, including absolute stereochemical assignment, was performed using complementary crystallographic, spectroscopic and computational methods. Tatiomicin shows antibiotic activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Cytological profiling experiments suggest a putative antibiotic mode-of-action, involving membrane depolarisation and chromosomal decondensation of the target bacteria.