Direct Medical Cost of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Associated Complications in Indonesia

Budi Hidayat, Royasia Viki Ramadani, Achmad Rudijanto, Pradana Soewondo, Ketut Suastika, Junice Yi Siu Ng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: To estimate the direct medical cost of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications in the Indonesian population from a payer perspective using a prevalence-based approach. Methods: The direct medical costs in 2016 were estimated using the database of Indonesia's National Health Insurance, known as Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional, which included diagnosis-related group costs and unbundled costs for patients accessing advanced care. The study population included people aged 30 years or older having a diagnosis of T2DM. T2DM and its related complications were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, code. Hypoglycemia and all complications listed in the Diabetes Severity Complications Index were included. Descriptive analysis was conducted. Costs were converted to 2016 US dollar equivalent. Results: Of the 18.9 million Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional members who accessed secondary and tertiary care, 812 204 (4%) were identified with T2DM, of which 57% had complications. The most common complication was cardiovascular diseases (24%). The total direct medical cost was US $576 million, with 56% spent on hospitalization, 38% on specialist visits, 4% on unbundled non–diabetes-related medication, and 2% on unbundled anti-hyperglycemic medications. Approximately 74% of the total costs was used for the management of people with complications. People with complications (US $930/person/year ± US $1480/person/year) incurred twice the cost of those without complications (US $421/person/year ± US $745/person/year). Conclusion: The direct medical cost for management of people with T2DM in Indonesia was high. Early diagnosis and optimal management of T2DM to prevent complications may reduce the costly sequelae and have a possibility of cost savings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)82-89
Number of pages8
JournalValue in Health Regional Issues
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


  • claims database
  • diabetes mellitus
  • Indonesia
  • medical care costs
  • type II


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