Introduction: The etiology of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is unknown nowadays; several factor are said to increase the risk for having ASD. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and support the prior studies that mentioned; complication during pregnancy, delivery and neonatal period increased the odds ratio for ASD. Method: This was a case-control study that involved 52 parents of children with ASD and 152 parents with gender- and age-matched healthy children. The complication during pregnancy, delivery and neonatal period were discovered through detailed interviewed with parents, especially mother. Data was tabulated and analysed by using the SPSS for Mac version 21. Results: Factors that increased risk for ASD included; infection during pregnancy (OR = 4.25, 95% CI 3.32–5.44; p < 005); prenatal depression (OR = 4.508, 95% CI 2.01–10.08; p < 005); prolonged delivery process (more than 12 hours) (OR = 3.22, 95% CI 1.32–7.83; p < 005); labor complication (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.01–5.831; p < 005); postpartum hemorrhage (OR > 3); asphyxia and the used of ventilator during neonatal period definitely (OR = 3.31; 95% CI 1.10–9.94; p < 005); smoking during pregnancy also played an important role in ASD (OR = 6.42, 95% CI 1.14–36.12; p < 005). Conclusion: The findings supported the prior studies that difficulties during pregnancy, delivery and neonatal period was very critical due to the infant brain development. Any factor and complication that related with it might increased the risk for having ASD.
- Risk factor