Diagnostic Indices for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD): A Systematic Review

Melati Fitria Putri, Lindawati S. Kusdhany, Ira Tanti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Summarize the existing scientific literatures, investigate the diagnostic indices for temporomandibular disorder (TMD) that are used nationally and internationally, and determine the best choice in establishing the diagnosis. Electronic search in the past 10 years by MEDLINE database, accessed through PubMed and EBSCO. The following main keywords were used: “diagnostic techniques and procedures”, “questionnaires”, “diagnostic index”, “temporomandibular disorders”. Using the inclusion and exclusion criteria 5 journals were selected for the present literature review. This review was conducted in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. These studies shows that Helkimo Index (HI), Craniomandibular Index (CMI), Research Diagnostic for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD), Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD), and Temporomandibular Etiology Index have gone through validity and reliability test, each of them have different sensitivity and specificity. This indices are suitable for a screening and/or diagnostic instrument for TMD. All of the indices above are sufficiently suitable for the evaluation of TMD. From this literature, dentists are free to choose which index they want to use to help establish a diagnosis of TMD, by knowing the plus minus each of the indices, and all of them are valid. For practical reason, Temporomandibular Etiology Index is the simplest index that can be considered

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1160-1168
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of International Dental and Medical Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • diagnostic index
  • Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures
  • questionnaires
  • temporomandibular disorder (TMD)


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