Diagnostic and antibiotic use practices among COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients in the Indonesian National Referral Hospital

Robert Sinto, Khie Chen Lie, Siti Setiati, Suhendro Suwarto, Erni J. Nelwan, Mulya Rahma Karyanti, Anis Karuniawati, Dean Handimulya Djumaryo, Ari Prayitno, Sumariyono Sumariyono, Mike Sharland, Catrin E. Moore, Raph L. Hamers, Nicholas P.J. Day, Direk Limmathurotsakul

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background Little is known about diagnostic and antibiotic use practices in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) before and during COVID-19 pandemic. This information is crucial for monitoring and evaluation of diagnostic and antimicrobial stewardships in healthcare facilities. Methods We linked and analyzed routine databases of hospital admission, microbiology laboratory and drug dispensing of Indonesian National Referral Hospital from 2019 to 2020. Patients were classified as COVID-19 cases if their SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR result were positive. Blood culture (BC) practices and time to discontinuation of parenteral antibiotics among inpatients who received a parenteral antibiotic for at least four consecutive days were used to assess diagnostic and antibiotic use practices, respectively. Fine and Grey subdistribution hazard model was used. Results Of 1,311 COVID-19 and 58,917 non-COVID-19 inpatients, 333 (25.4%) and 18,837 (32.0%) received a parenteral antibiotic for at least four consecutive days. Proportion of patients having BC taken within ±1 calendar day of parenteral antibiotics being started was higher in COVID-19 than in non-COVID-19 patients (21.0% [70/333] vs. 18.7% [3,529/18,837]; p<0.001). Cumulative incidence of having a BC taken within 28 days was higher in COVID-19 than in non-COVID-19 patients (44.7% [149/333] vs. 33.2% [6,254/18,837]; adjusted subdistribution-hazard ratio [aSHR] 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.47–1.99, p<0.001). The median time to discontinuation of parenteral antibiotics was longer in COVID-19 than in non-COVID-19 patients (13 days vs. 8 days; aSHR 0.73, 95%Cl 0.65–0.83, p<0.001). Conclusions Routine electronic data could be used to inform diagnostic and antibiotic use practices in LMICs. In Indonesia, the proportion of timely blood culture is low in both COVID-19 and nonCOVID-19 patients, and duration of parenteral antibiotics is longer in COVID-19 patients. Improving diagnostic and antimicrobial stewardship is critically needed.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0297405
JournalPloS one
Volume19
Issue number3 March
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024

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