© 2019 The Author(s) Background: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare group of disorders without a well understood etiology. Known formerly as histiocytosis X, the disease has a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, including eosinophilic granuloma (solitary bone lesion), diabetes insipidus, and exophthalmos. Many of these patients initially present to orthopaedic surgeons, and misdiagnosis is frequent. Methods: We deliver a case of a 10-month-old boy who consulted to our department. Previously misdiagnosed as a Kawasaki syndrome, TORCH, and osteomyelitis. He had undergone several examinations and had been discussed in clinocipathological conference (CPC) to narrow down the diagnosis. Result: After serial examinations, the diagnosis of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis was confirmed and chemotherapy was initiated. And after 6 cycles of chemotherapy, with 1-week interval of each therapy, the clinical appearance of this patient significantly improved. Conclusion: Despite major advances in our understanding and management of LCH, it remains one of the most challenging diagnoses for the orthopedic surgeon. By doing a comprehensive examination, it is possible to narrowing down the diagnosis and planning the accurate treatment.
- Bone lesion
- Case report
- Langerhans cell hystiocytosis