Development of risk-based standardized WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) for cost estimation of apartment's project

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12 Citations (Scopus)


The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) forms the base for most project management processes. Despite each project being unique, most building retain cognate, elemental options that provide the basis for any structure, and these can be standardized and used as a basis for a universal programme of construction works. The standardization of task would enable the automation of project planning processes and hence would result in reduced management cost. This paper proposes the development of WBS Standard and analyzing the possible risks that arise in project implementation then consider those risks for the estimation process. The research focused on investigation of risk factor in activities of Standard WBS from contractors' perspective. The scope of this study was limited to apartment's projects only. Data was gathered using questionnaire survey from contractors who have built apartments. Investigations on the risk factor involved 36 risk factors classified in 6 categories derived from WBS's levels. Risk analysis found 6 high risks in 3 categories. The findings of this study are expected to assist the contractor in the estimation process by anticipating the risks that arise in the construction implementation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)822-833
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2017


  • Cost estimation
  • Risk factors
  • Standard WBS


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