Development and Validation of Discomfort Evaluation of Wound Instrument (DEWI) in Patients With Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Dewi Gayatri, Elly Nurachmah, Muchtaruddin Mansyur, Pradana Soewondo, Suriadi, Jahja Umar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Discomfort is the most common complaint by patients with a chronic wound, especially patients with diabetic foot ulcers. However, in a clinical setting, discomfort receive less attention and poorly understood. To date, no validated instrument specific to measure discomfort in a chronic wound. The aimed of this study was to develop and validate a newly instrument measured discomfort in patients with a chronic wound. Methods: Items were developed through literature review and refining by an expert. A psychometric evaluation of the instrument was conducted using confirmatory factor analysis and construct validity with convergent and discriminant validity. Of 140 patients with diabetic foot ulcers completed the final instrument at three general hospitals in Jakarta, Indonesia. Results: A total of 11 items was reported valid according to the confirmatory validity test. Factor loading ranges from 0.357 to 0.658. Convergent and discriminant validity of the DEWI scale reported good. Conclusion: A 11-items psychometrically sound measure of comfort in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. This tool will be therapeutically useful in providing a structured technique to evaluate the level of comfort of wound care.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)126-130
Number of pages5
JournalMalaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Diabetic Foot Ulcer
  • Discomfort
  • Psychometric
  • Validation
  • Wound Care


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