Developing and feasibility testing of the Indonesian computer-based game prototype for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Tjhin Wiguna, Raden Irawati Ismail, Fransiska Kaligis, Kusuma Minayati, Belinda Julivia Murtani, Ngurah Agung Wigantara, Kent Pradana, Raymond Bahana, Bayu Prakoso Dirgantoro, Eko Nugroho

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4 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study was to develop an Indonesian computer-based game prototype, including feasibility testing, targeted on attention deficit/hypersensitivity disorder (ADHD) clinical symptoms and executive function. The study comprised five steps. The first to third steps used an exploratory qualitative research design. The Delphi technique with FGD was applied to collect qualitative data. During the study, seven experts participated in ten FGDs. Feasibility testing was conducted as a one group pre- and post-test design that included ten children with drug-naïve ADHD without other mental or physical disorders. Feasibility data were collected before and after 20 training sessions with the Indonesian computer-based game prototype. The framework analysis was performed for qualitative data. Quantitative data were analyzed using the paired t-test, Pearson's correlation and Spearman's rank-order correlation. Outputs of the exploratory qualitative study were the Indonesian computer-based game prototype constructs and general agreements of the prototype,. The Indonesian computer-based game prototype construct comprised six components: reward-related processing, control inhibition, improved sustained attention, specific timing, increased arousal, and improved emotional regulation. After 20 sessions of training, several indicators decreased significantly, such as CATPRS-teacher rating (18.5 [5.31] vs. 12.9 [5.51], p = 0.047), BRIEF-GEC (64.80 [10.21] vs. 57.50 [7.51], p = 0.02), BRIEF-MI (66.1 [7.61] vs. 58.4 [7.56], p = 0.014), BRIEF-Initiate (66.6 [10.15] vs. 54.1 [6.49], p = 0.008), BRIEF-Working Memory (68.0 [6.89] vs. 60.9 [10.05], p = 0.02), and BRIEF-Organization of Material (60.7 [12.88] vs. 49.3 [11.79], p = 0.04). There was a low to moderate correlation between CATPRS-teacher and -parent rating and several BRIEF domains. Feasibility testing output also included the training procedure guideline. The present study indicated that the Indonesian computer-based game prototype could be used as a framework to develop a fixed computer-based game intervention for children with ADHD. However, further randomized controlled studies need to be conducted to show its effectiveness.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere07571
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021


  • ADHD
  • Behavioral Rating Inventory for Executive Function
  • Computer-based game
  • Connors Abbreviated Teacher
  • Executive function
  • Indonesia


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