Determinants of low breastfeeding self-efficacy amongst mothers of children aged less than six months: results from the BADUTA study in East Java, Indonesia

Christiana Rialine Titaley, Michael J. Dibley, Iwan Ariawan, Anifatun Mu’asyaroh, Ashraful Alam, Rita Damayanti, Tran Thanh Do, Elaine Ferguson, Kyaw Htet, Mu Li, Aang Sutrisna, Umi Fahmida

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9 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Despite the increasing rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia, there is still a need for supportive interventions. The breastfeeding self-efficacy of mothers is a key factor positively associated with optimum breastfeeding practices. Our analysis aims to assess the determinants of low breastfeeding self-efficacy amongst a sample of women with children aged under 6 months in Malang and Sidoarjo Districts, East Java, Indonesia. Methods: We used information from 1210 mothers of children aged < 6 months recruited in the BADUTA study conducted in 2015–2016 in Malang and Sidoarjo Districts. The outcome variable in this analysis was mothers’ self-efficacy for breastfeeding using the 14 statements in the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy-Short Form. We evaluated 17 potential predictors of breastfeeding self-efficacy, organized into six sub-groups of variables: (1) context/demographic; (2) household factors; (3) maternal characteristics; (4) child characteristics; (5) breastfeeding practices; and (6) antenatal and delivery care. Logistic regression analyses were employed to examine factors associated with mothers’ self-efficacy with breastfeeding. Results: More than half of the women in this study had a low level of self-efficacy. One of the factors associated with low breastfeeding self-efficacy found in this study was mothers’ problems related to breastfeeding. Mothers who had problems with breastfeeding not related to illness (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.27; 95% CI 2.45, 4.36) or problems related to both illness and non-illness conditions (aOR 3.57; 95% CI 1.37, 9.33) had higher odds of low breastfeeding self-efficacy than those who did not have any problems. Compared to mothers who completed university education, there was a significantly higher odds of low breastfeeding self-efficacy in mothers who completed primary school or lower (aOR 1.88; 95% CI 1.16, 3.05); completed junior high school (aOR 2.27; 95% CI 1.42, 3.63); and completed senior high school (aOR 1.94; 95% CI 1.29, 2.91). Other significant predictors of low breastfeeding self-efficacy were mothers not exposed to any breastfeeding interventions (aOR 1.87; 95% CI 1.09, 3.22); working outside the house (aOR 1.69; 95% CI 1.23, 2.32); not obtaining any advice on breastfeeding (aOR 1.40; 95% CI 1.08, 1.82); with low knowledge of breastfeeding (aOR 1.38; 95% CI 1.03, 1.84); and delivered by Caesarean section (aOR 1.34; 95% CI 1.05, 1.70). Conclusions: Multipronged breastfeeding education programs and support are required to improve women’s self-efficacy with breastfeeding. Improved access to breastfeeding counselors, active support for mothers following cesarean delivery, and increased supporting facilities at workplaces are essential to improve self-efficacy with breastfeeding.

Original languageEnglish
Article number12
JournalInternational Breastfeeding Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • BADUTA study
  • Breastfeeding
  • Children aged < 6 months
  • Indonesia
  • Malang District
  • Self-efficacy
  • Sidoarjo District


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