Old manuscripts, as organic materials, can be subjected to deterioration by fungi . Fungal species (over 200) are the main cause of damage to objects of cultural heritage made of or supported on paper . Fungi from old manuscripts can be identified to species level by analysis of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of rDNA . Old Chinese manuscripts in Indonesia are one of historical evidences of close relationship between Indonesia and China for hundred years. From our preliminary survey, the collection of old Chinese manuscripts in Central Library Universitas Indonesia was deteriorated by fungi. Information about fungal species from old Chinese manuscripts has not been reported yet, both in Indonesia and China. Our study is aimed to detect the growth of fungi on old Chinese manuscripts, and to isolate and identify the fungi that deteriorates the manuscripts in Central Library Universitas Indonesia. Twelve samples of old Chinese manuscripts deteriorated by fungi shows spore formation and brown spot on their paper surface. Forty one fungal isolates are collected from seven manuscripts, and many of them (28 isolates from 41) are xerophiles. Fifteen isolates were identified by molecular approach using ITS5. They were identified as Anthostomella sp., Aspergillus aculeatus, Aspergillus insuetus, Chaetosartorya stromatoides, Cladosporium colocasiae, Cladosporium columbiae, Cladosporium pini-ponderosa, Flavomyces fulophazii, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium sp., and Pseudozyma sp. Fifteen fungal isolates could be identified to genus level based on morphological characters as follows: Aspergillus (10 isolates), Curvularia (1 isolate), and Penicillium (4 isolates). Some isolates could not be identified to the genus level since they do not produce asexual/sexual spores (mycelia sterilia). Further identification to species level will be carried out by molecular approach. Most of the isolated fungi from old Chinese manuscripts were xerophiles and able to use Chinese paper as a substrate. This study is the first report on the diversity of fungi from old Chinese manuscripts from Indonesia.