Detection of Enteropathogens in Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Non-Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children with Acute Diarrhea in an Indonesian Tertiary Hospital Using Multiplex Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

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Abstract

Purpose: Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of mortality in children living in developing countries. The etiology of acute diarrhea in each healthcare center varies depending on place, time, and population. This study aimed to identify pathogen patterns in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and non-HIV children suffering from acute diarrhea, using multiplex real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), in an Indonesian tertiary hospital. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital from March 2019 to April 2020. Results: The study showed that multiplex RT-PCR results were positive in 58.9% of the specimens, with more positive results in HIV-infected children than in non-HIV-infected children (70% vs. 54.7%). Altogether 72 enteropathogens were detected from all specimens. Enteropathogens in non-HIV children with acute diarrhea consisted of bacteria (70.6%) and viruses (29.4%) with a predominance of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (25.4%), followed by Campylobacter spp. (11.8%), enteropathogenic E. coli (9.8%), Norovirus GII (7.8%), and Clostridium difficile (7.8%). Enteropathogens in HIV-infected children consisted of viruses (57.1%), bacteria (28.6%), and parasites (14.3%) comprising Norovirus GII (24%), Cryptosporidium spp. (14.3%), Campylobacter spp. (14.3%), Norovirus GI (14.3%), and Astrovirus (14.3%). Cryptosporidium spp. was the only parasite found in this study and was found only in HIV-infected children. In non-HIV children with acute diarrhea, most pathogens were invasive bacteria, while in HIV-infected children, more viral and parasite infections occurred, primarily caused by opportunistic pathogens. Conclusion: The pattern of enteropathogens can help clinicians determine further examinations and appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy for the patient.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95-103
Number of pages9
JournalPediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition
Volume27
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2024

Keywords

  • Child
  • Diarrhea
  • HIV
  • Multiplex polymerase chain reaction
  • Tertiary care centers

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