Dementia and dependency vs. Proxy indicators of the active ageing index in indonesia

Eef Hogervorst, Elisabeth Schröder-Butterfill, Yvonne Suzy Handajani, Philip Kreager, Tri Budi W. Rahardjo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Dementia prevalence is increasing worldwide and developing countries are expected to carry the highest burden of this. Dementia has high care needs and no current effective long-term treatment. However, factors associated with active ageing (e.g., longer employment; participation in society; independent, healthy and secure living; and enabling environments to allow people to remain psychosocially and physically active) could help maintain independence in older people for longer. We investigated proxy indicators of the Active Ageing Index (AAI), which were offset against dementia and dependency (assessed by Instrumental Activities of Daily Living or IADL) in multi-ethnic urban (Jakarta) and rural (Sumedang and Borobudur) health care districts on Java, Indonesia. Dementia was assessed using validated cognitive dementia screening tests, the IADL and carer reports. Dementia and dependency prevalence showed large interregional differences and were highest in rural Borobudur. Dementia and dependency were associated with an older age, lower education (for dementia), worse physical health (for dependency) and not engaging in psychosocial activities, such as attending community events, reading (for dementia) and sport activities (for dependency). By supporting active ageing activities in Puskesmas (primary health care centers) and improving access to medical care, rural areas could possibly reduce dementia and dependency risk. Our follow-up study planned in 2021 should illustrate whether recent relevant policies have rendered success in these areas. Using active ageing indicators could focus policies to support regions with targeted interventions to compress care needs in older people.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8235
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 2 Aug 2021


  • Active ageing index
  • Activities of daily living
  • Ageing well
  • Dementia


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