Decomposition of ferronickel slag through alkali fusion in the roasting process

Wahyu Mayangsari, Isma Nur Avifah, Agus Budi Prasetyo, Eni Febriana, Ahmad Maksum, Reza Miftahul Ulum, Florentinus Firdiyono, Rudi Subagja, Johny Wahyuadi Soedarsono

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Ferronickel slag is a by-product of the nickel smelting process. Recycling of ferronickel slag is required since it contains valuable elements besides its potency to pollute the environment. In order to take advantage of the valuable materials and reducing the potential hazard, beneficiation of ferronickel slag is essential. Alkali fusion of ferronickel slag using Na2CO3 in the roasting process was carried out. This study aims to determine the decomposition of the mixture of ferronickel slag-Na2CO3 in the roasting process. Roasting temperature and time were 800–1,000 °C and 60‒240 minutes, respectively. Characterizations of the ferronickel slag were conducted by XRF, ICP-OES, XRD and SEM-EDS. Meanwhile, roasted products were characterized using ICP-OES, XRD and SEM-EDS. Characterization of the ferronickel slag indicates that Mg and Si are the main elements followed by Fe, Al and Cr. Moreover, olivine is detected as the main phase. The roasting process caused percent weight loss of the roasted products, which indicates decomposition occurred and affected the elements content, phases and morphology. The roasting process at about 900 °C for 60 minutes is a preferable decomposition base on the process conditions applied and the change of elements content. Aluminum (Al) and chromium (Cr) content in the roasted products upgraded significantly compared to iron (Fe) and magnesium (Mg) content. Olivine phase transforms to some phases, which were bounded with the sodium compound such as Na2MgSiO4, Na4SiO4 and Na2CrO4. The rough layer is observed on the surface of the roasted product as a result of the decomposition process. It indicates that liquid-solid mass transfer is initiated from the surface.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)44-51
Number of pages8
JournalEastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies
Issue number12-110
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • alkali fusion
  • aluminum
  • chromium
  • decomposition
  • ferronickel
  • iron
  • magnesium
  • NaCO
  • olivine
  • roasting
  • slag
  • thermal


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