Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in foods are increased by heat processing, and high consumption of these compounds could contribute to the pathogenesis of non-communicable disease. Yet, the information on carboxymethyl lysine (CML) content, as a part of AGEs, in dietary intakes with predominantly traditional foods with diverse food processing is lacking. We developed a database of Indonesian foods to facilitate studies involving the assessment of dietary and plasma CML concentration by liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry. We estimated dietary CML values of 206 food items from 2-repeated 24-h recalls of 235 Indonesian women with the mean age of 36±8 years old in a cross-sectional study. All foods were listed and grouped according to the Indonesian food composition table, completed for cooking methods, amount of consumptions, and ingredients. CML values were obtained from published databases, analyzed with similar methods or calculated using other criteria. We searched and reviewed papers published between 2000 and 2017 using the keywords: "advanced glycation end products", "carboxymethyl lysine", "diet", and "food". The highest CML content per 100g of Indonesian foods were from instant noodles, chocolate, and cereal drinks, being 3.3mg, 2.9mg, and 2.6mg, respectively. While median CML content among food groups ranged between 0.1 to 0.8 mg. The major contribution of dietary CML were from steamed white rice, instant noodle, and plain rice rolls, boiled. This database can be used for estimating dietary CML in Indonesian people and should be updated by uploading new foods, revising the CML values, or conducting direct analyses.
|Number of pages
|Journal of International Dental and Medical Research
|Published - 1 Jan 2019
- Carboxymethyl lysine
- Heat processing
- Indonesian women
- Liquid Chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry