Objectives: Accelerated atherosclerosis in older HIV-infected patients has been attributed to persistent immune activation and high burden cytomegalovirus (CMV), as demonstrated in transplant recipients and the general population. Here we assess CMV and inflammatory markers linked with vascular health in young adult patients treated in Indonesia. Study design: HIV-infected adults (n = 32) were examined when they began antiretroviral therapy (ART) with < 200 CD4 T-cells/µl (V0) and after 60 months (V60). Age-matched healthy controls (HC, n = 32) were assessed once. Methods: Flow Mediated Dilatation (FMD) was assessed by ultrasound on brachial arteries at V60 and in HC. Plasma markers of immune activation and endothelial activation, and CMV antibodies (lysate, gB, IE-1) were assessed in all samples. Results were assessed using bivariate (non-parametric) and multivariable analyses. Results: Levels of inflammatory biomarkers and CMV antibodies declined on ART, but the antibodies remained higher than in HC. FMD values were similar in patients and HC at V60. In HIV patients, levels of CMV lysate antibody correlated inversely (r = − 0.37) with FMD. The optimal model predicting lower FMD values (adjusted R2 = 0.214, p = 0.012) included CMV lysate antibodies and chondroitin sulphate. In HC, levels of sTNFR correlated inversely with FMD (r = − 0.41) and remained as a risk factor in the optimal multivariable model, with CMV glycoprotein-B (gB) antibody predicting a healthier FMD (adjusted R2 = 0.248, p = 0.013). Conclusions: Higher levels CMV antibodies optimally predict vascular health measured by FMD in HIV patients. However in healthy controls, sTNFR marks risk and CMV gB antibody may be protective.
- Endothelial function
- Inflammatory biomarkers