Current updates on protein as biomarkers for diabetic kidney disease: a systematic review

Rani Sauriasari, Dhonna Dwi Safitri, Nuriza Ulul Azmi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Background: In the past decade, researchers have been focused on discovering protein biomarkers for diabetic kidney disease. This paper aims to search for, analyze, and synthesize current updates regarding the development of these efforts. Methods: We systematically searched the ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, and PubMed databases for observational studies of protein biomarkers in patients with diabetes mellitus. We included studies published between January 2018 and April 2020, that were based on a population of patients with type-1 or type-2 diabetes mellitus aged ⩾18 years, with an observational design such as cross-sectional, case–control, or cohort studies. The dependent variable of the research results was in the form of protein biomarkers from urine, plasma, or serum. Results: Following the screening process, 20 research articles with available full text met the inclusion criteria. These could be categorized as glomerular biomarkers (ANGPTL4, beta-2 microglobulin, Smad1, and glypican-5); inflammatory biomarkers (MCP-1 and adiponectin); and tubular biomarkers (NGAL, VDBP, megalin, sKlotho, and KIM-1). The development of a panel of biomarkers showed more promising results than those for a single biomarker in diagnosing diabetic kidney disease. Conclusion: All the biomarkers discussed in this review showed promising results for predicting diabetic kidney disease because they correlate with albuminuria, eGFR, or both. However, of the 11 protein biomarkers, none have prognostic value beyond albuminuria and eGFR.

Original languageEnglish
JournalTherapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • albuminuria
  • biomarker
  • diabetic kidney disease
  • estimated glomerular filtration rate
  • proteomic


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