This review intends to explore the household hazardous waste (HHW) generation rates, HHW management, and people's awareness regarding HHW in Asian countries based on the economic levels using the available published articles. This is a systematic review of the scientific literature based on several databases, namely Scopus, ProQuest, PubMed, Sage Journals, and Elsevier's Science Direct from 2008 to 2018. HHW generation rates in various Asian cities do not seem to be influenced by the countries' financial status, except for e-waste. The variety in HHW generation rates among Asian countries might be due to various reasons, which include differences in (1) sampling frame/locations; (2) sampling size; (3) study duration; (4) seasons; (5) study year; and (6) HHW definition/composition. Governmental intervention programs on HHW management have been implemented in some of the Asian countries, mostly in high and upper-middle income groups although misconducts are still found. There is a tendency for economically developed countries to ship their e-waste to less-developed countries, where the system relies heavily on the informal sectors where unsafe treatments are often discovered. Low level of awareness regarding HHW risks is mostly identified in the lower-middle income group. However, even though high and upper-middle income groups have a better awareness of HHW, many people do not entirely follow the recommended practices. The lack of enforced regulation and proper treatment infrastructure may lead to HHW being mixed with general household waste, which is found in many Asian countries, despite their income levels. In addition, a good awareness of HHW does not guarantee proper handling of it.
- hazardous waste