Current information and asian perspectives on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation, and infancy: Systematic review and practice recommendations from an early nutrition academy workshop

Berthold Koletzko, Christopher C.M. Boey, Cristina Campoy, Susan E. Carlson, Namsoo Chang, Maria Antonia Guillermo-Tuazon, Sadhana Joshi, Christine Prell, Seng Hock Quak, Damayanti Rusli Sjarif, Yixiang Su, Sarayut Supapannachart, Yuichiro Yamashiro, Saskia J.M. Osendarp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

95 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Early Nutrition Academy supported a systematic review of human studies on the roles of pre- and postnatal longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) published from 2008 to 2013 and an expert workshop that reviewed the information and developed recommendations, considering particularly Asian populations. An increased supply of n-3 LC-PUFA during pregnancy reduces the risk of preterm birth before 34 weeks of gestation. Pregnant women should achieve an additional supply ≥ 200 mg docosahexaenic acid (DHA)/day, usually achieving a total intake ≥ 300 mg DHA/day. Higher intakes (600-800 mg DHA/day) may provide greater protection against early preterm birth. Some studies indicate beneficial effects of pre- and postnatal DHA supply on child neurodevelopment and allergy risk. Breast-feeding is the best choice for infants. Breast-feeding women should get ≥ 200 mg DHA/day to achieve a human milk DHA content of ∼ 0.3% fatty acids. Infant formula for term infants should contain DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) to provide 100 mg DHA/day and 140 mg AA/day. A supply of 100 mg DHA/day should continue during the second half of infancy. We do not provide quantitative advice on AA levels in follow-on formula fed after the introduction of complimentary feeding due to a lack of sufficient data and considerable variation in the AA amounts provided by complimentary foods. Reasonable intakes for very-low-birth weight infants are 18-60 mg/ kg/day DHA and 18-45 mg/kg/day AA, while higher intakes (55-60 mg/kg/day DHA, ∼ 1% fatty acids; 35-45 mg/kg/day AA, ∼0.6-0.75%) appear preferable. Research on the requirements and effects of LC-PUFA during pregnancy, lactation, and early childhood should continue.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)49-80
Number of pages32
JournalAnnals of Nutrition and Metabolism
Volume65
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 Nov 2014

Keywords

  • Arachidonic acid
  • Docosahexaenoic acid
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid
  • Infant feeding
  • Nutrition in pregnancy
  • Perinatal nutrition
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids

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