Cultural resource management for a Majapahit Kingdom site in trowulan, East Java, Indonesia

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3 Citations (Scopus)


The Kingdom of Majapahit located in East Java, Indonesia, was established in 1293 CE and lasted until its destruction in the sixteenth century. At its peak, the Kingdom covered the modern-day region of Indonesia and the Malay Peninsula. Archaeological remains from the Majapahit era have been discovered in several places, including Java, Bali, and Sumatra, but the most important site is located in the small town of Trowulan in East Java. Trowulan has been researched since the beginning of nineteenth century, with most of the work concerned with the study and preservation of the archaeological remains; little research has taken place regarding the archaeological remains in the relation to the local community. Archaeologists and the government agree that the inhabitants of Trowulan have violated regulations related to the protection of the monuments and that their activities have damaged the site. Until now neither the neither archaeologists nor the government have conducted any research into the reasons behind the local community's actions. Understanding the local communities' perspectives and aspiration is essential in order to develop relevant recommendations regarding the protection and management Trowulan's cultural heritage. This research has been undertaken using qualitative methods, including observations, in-depth interviews, and Focus Group discussions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)297-307
Number of pages11
JournalConservation and Management of Archaeological Sites
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2014


  • Community aspirations
  • Illicit antiquities
  • Looting
  • Regulation
  • Site destruction
  • Smuggling


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